General Questions

Floor in the industry and commerce is not just part of a structure. Industrial floor is heavily exposed to stress, load and several types of industrial chemicals. In this high demanding industrial environment, concrete surface fails. Also concrete substrate is porous in nature thus when water and other fluids enter into concrete, the reinforcing steel corrodes. To sustain and maintain the industrial floor a protection is must.

FloorClad floor coating systems are a true, commercial grade epoxy and urethane products with chemical resistance and abrasion resistance properties superior to typical coatings. It is the choice of professional race shops and automotive professionals across the country, where a durable, easy-to-maintain protective finish is necessary for a clean, well-run shop.

FloorClad floor coating systems are lifetime products in certain applications. In automotive dealerships and service areas, and other high-traffic, high-abuse areas, the service life is typically up to 3-6 years before a recoat is required. In residential applications with proper care, your FloorClad floor will last much longer.

FloorClad floor coating systems, once cured, are permanently bonded to the substrate and maintain flexural strength in extreme heat and severe cold. The coatings are designed to move and stretch with the substrate without cracking or blistering

All FloorClad finishes are chemical resistant. They are unaffected by automotive and other chemicals, provided the floor is not neglected; spills should not be left for extended periods of time. Information regarding chemical resistance to specific fluids is located under the Chemical Resistance Chart.

The FloorClad Cementious Screeds & Toppings will prevent liquids from passing through into the concrete, but remains breathable to allow water vapor to pass through due to hydrostatic pressure from beneath the floor. FloorClad may be applied to the floor to completely seal the breathable FloorClad surface and prevent any moisture or water vapor from passing through the coating.

By increasing the overall thickness of the coating, and by burying the color coats, can add to the durability of the finish in relation to wear and abrasion. However, the chemical resistance is not increased or decreased with the addition of a gloss coat.

Yes, FloorClad is well-suited to exterior applications. FloorClad polyurethane system is recommended to topcoat brightly sunlit areas to help prevent yellowing.

No. FloorClad is warranted against any kind of lifting and peeling including "hot-tire pickup."

Welding spatter will generally not affect FloorClad provided the area is kept clean of slag (to prevent abrasions on floor) and welding is done at bench height.

FloorClad, as with any coating, may become slippery under certain conditions. FloorClad recommends the use of the non-slip additive to create a non-slip floor.

Epoxy flooring is used in various industrial sectors like automotive, steel, petrochemical, power, food, electronic, appliance, engineering, fertilizer, pharma etc. Also it can be applied in garages, offices, shops, car parking etc.

Before selecting flooring you should understand the operational requirements like crack bridging, slip resistance, abrasion resistance, impact-load resistance, compression resistance, traffic resistance, non-flammability, conductivity, aesthetics, easy to clean, ease of maintenance, long life, chemical resistance etc. of the area.

No, you don’t need to recoat it every year. Normally the epoxy finish recoat is required after a period of 3-6 years. The recoat period may vary depending on the use of the floor. Floor where there is heavy and continuous movement or it is highly exposed to corroding environment or it is not maintain properly or there is need to maintain aesthetics, for such floor recoating period shortens.

Unprotected concrete floors will wear, become stained by oils and fluids, and be damaged by the corrosive effects of snow and ice melting chemicals such as rock salt. Epoxy flooring protects concrete from wear because it is actually harder and more durable than the concrete itself. The hard durable epoxy coating is so dense that oils and fluids cannot penetrate its surface to soak in and cause staining. It is also impervious to the corrosive effects of rock salt.

Ultraviolet radiation (a component of sunlight) will cause most floor coatings to fade. For floor exposed to sunlight an FloorClad PFC, aliphatic PU coating is recommended.

Yes, it has aesthetic appeal with wide varieties of shades. Also different types of decorative silica/quartz are available in epoxy flooring.

Operational requirements like crack bridging, slip resistance, abrasion resistance, impact-load resistance, compression resistance, traffic resistance, non-flammability, conductivity, aesthetics, easy to clean, ease of maintenance, long life etc. and surface condition determine the flooring system.

0.5 co-efficient of friction is common acceptance in general floor areas and 0.8 on wheelchair ramps. The ELCO meter test equipment can test Unit of force/weight of object. The OSHA (Occupation Safety Health Administration) says a safe slip resistance as specified by 1910.68 is 0.5 co-efficient of friction. Additional floor test specifications by ADA: 0.6 flat surface 0.8 ramped surfaces as defined by ADA accessibility guidelines (ADAAG).


Product Based

An epoxy flooring is a smooth, monolithic flooring formed by pouring a two to four component mixture over the concrete floor. If the epoxy is self-leveling, then it shall tend to spread across the floor, in a manner so as to minimize the undulations and bring about as level a floor as possible.

Epoxy flooring promotes the Clean Room concept by providing a joint less finish and minimal undulations. This prevents accumulation of dirt and makes the floor highly washable. Epoxy flooring is also extremely tough and has strengths ranging from 60 N/mm2 to 80 N/mm2, which makes it much tougher than ordinary concrete floors which are typically of 20-40 N/mm2 strengths.

Do's:

  1. Clean immediately with detergent and warm water, in the event of chemicals/ oil grease spillage.
  2. Vacuum clean regularly. Clean floor with detergent and warm water using soft bristles to avoid scratches. Polish as per manufacturer's recommendation.
  3. Regular maintenance of trolleys and forklifts. Prevent locking of wheels.
  4. Use polyurethane or pneumatic wheels with wider contact area to reduce frictional stresses.
  5. Please allow proper curing of the coating as per manufacturer's recommendation before exposing the floor to any loading / movement.
  6. Keep mats underneath before placing heavy weights on the floor.
  7. Check the pallets and ensure that no nails are protruding in trolleys / forklifts.
  8. Maintain reasonably constant temperature in the rooms.
  9. Repair leakages in water pipes and air ducts immediately to avoid pressure beneath the substrate, which could lead to blisters on the floor.

Don’ts:

  1. Spill chemicals / oil / grease the floor.
  2. Let sand inside - use air lock or air curtain
  3. Store reactable solvent without proper instructions.
  4. Use imbalance wheels.
  5. Use black rubber / metal wheels on trolleys and forklifts, it will lead to scoring and marking on the floor.
  6. Drag heavy objects on the floor, as it will lead to scratches.
  7. Drop sharp and heavy objects on the floor, as it will leave dents and marks.

 

Epoxy Flooring

Vinyl Flooring

Finish

Surface finish is smoother.

Surface finish is less smooth.

Microbial Growth

Since the self-leveling epoxy flooring gives smooth finish and is very easy to clean, the micro-organism/bacterial growth is very difficult.

Possible because finish is not smooth and slight porosity/texture on the floor will lead to micro bacterial growth.

Ease of Application

Needs skilled application.

Easier to apply.

Abrasion & Tear Resistance

Higher.

Lower.

Hygiene Factor

Higher.

Lower.

Chemical Resistance

Higher.

Lower.

A 100% solid system is a system that has no carrier base of water or solvent. In such a system, the Dry Film Thickness is equal to the Wet Film Thickness and there is no loss of mass.

 

Water based  coating

Solvent based coating

Emission

No V.O.C (volatile organic compounds).

Solvent based coatings contain V.O.C which emits solvent fumes (bad smell, potential breathing hazards, and need for proper ventilation).

Health Hazards

No major health hazards while applying. Personal physical contact is not harmful.

Can pose potential health hazards; especially it can be carcinogenic or cause asthma. Personal physical contact may be harmful due to toxic nature.

Surface Penetration

Lesser surface penetration. This is more relevant for floorings and not really for wall coatings.

Better surface penetration results in a better performance when it comes to porous surfaces.

Cleaning

Equipment’s and splashes during application can, generally speaking, be cleaned easily with water.

Need for a special solvent based cleaner, requiring good effluent arrangements in the place.

Application for shut down / maintenance jobs

Poses no problems with minimal disturbance to areas / people / machinery.

Poses inconvenience as conditions may be unsuitable for workers/employees especially in closed area. Requiring masking and lot of preparations.

International conventions

No such restrictions.

Many countries have banned  solvented coating or they specify only a very low level of admissible VOC.

Salt spray test is a standardized accelerated corrosion test based on ASTM B 117 standard that produces a corrosive attack to the coated metallic samples in order to predict its suitability in use as a protective finish. The appearance of corrosion products (oxides) is evaluated after a period of time. Test duration depends on the corrosion resistance of the coating; the more corrosion resistant the coating is, the longer the period in testing without showing signs of corrosion.

Surface preparation is probably the single most important determinant in determining the life of a coating; all other things equal.

There are two aspects of surface preparation: surface cleanliness and surface profile. Surface cleanliness refers to the extent of rust and other contamination on the surface; the cleanest surface being a surface close to white metal. Swedish standards are used to measure surface cleanliness of a metal.

Surface profile refers to the roughness profile on the surface of the substrate. For any coating to succeed mechanical anchoring with a substrate is the first bonding; chemical cross-linking through polymerization is the second stage of bonding (as illustrated). It is essential that both stages of bonding are successful.

While there is no simple way of assessing the durability of an exterior coating, as it is a function of numerous factors, one basic methodology that may be used for back of the envelope calculations is to check for the Dry Film Thickness (DFT) of the coating and higher the DFT, greater the expected life.

Yes they do. You hit on some key items that improve the quality of finish. The resins along with the binders give you the quality of finish. Also, the way the product is produced can impact the quality. Paint goes through a piece of machinery called a wet grinding mill. This grinds everything together. The size of the grinding media used and length of time it goes through the mill impacts the fineness of the pigment grind, which impacts the quality of the product.

Of the three main paint ingredients - pigments, solvents and binders - the pigment provides hiding power and gives paint its color and shading. The solvents carry the paint to the surface, and then evaporate, leaving behind a film of paint; the binders are bonding agents that hold the paint together.

V.O.C. stands for Volatile Organic Component, and it usually refers to solvents in the system. However, not all solvents are V.O.C's, which means that the solids content of the coating can be less than the amount of V.O.C's in the system. The lower the amount of V.O.C's in the coating, the safer it is to use. V.O.C's increase the degree of flammability of the coating and also increase the health risk associated with application of the coating.

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the transfer of an electrostatic charge between two objects. This is a very rapid event that happens when two objects of different potentials come into direct contact with each other. Most Epoxy floors are antistatic (non-conductive) which is rendered electrically conductive or static dissipative by adding, blending or weaving carbon and graphite into standard flooringmaterials.
ESD floor are categorized based on resistance of floor

i.e.
• Conductive Floor: < 1* 106 Ω 
• Static Dissipative Floor: 1* 106 Ω - 1* 109 Ω 
• Anti Static Floor: Charge > 1* 109 Ω

Application Specific

FloorClad Kit will provide enough material to cover between 400 and 576 sq. ft. with a bond coat and finish color coat. The coverage depends on the porosity and overall condition of the substrate. Larger areas are easily coated with additional FloorClad single and double packs. Once the floor is finished it will cover up to 576 sq. ft., all with one gloss topcoat.

The ideal application range for FloorClad It is an air or room temperature of 15° – 32°C. Typical drying time and cure times stated in this web site are based at 25°C. Cooler temperatures may increase dry times, while warmer temperatures may shorten pot life.

Depending on the finish, it may take as little as one day or up to three days including preparation of the floor. Please refer TDS for details.

Typical drying time between coats is 4-12 hours, see TDS for details. A standard FloorClad finish may be applied and ready for light traffic in as little as one day.

FloorClad water-based products do not give off harmful fumes or odors even when used in enclosed spaces. FloorClad solvent based finishes require adequate ventilation during application.

FloorClad may be applied to any sound substrate. For previously coated floors that are NOT peeling or flaking, the surface should be scuffed or sanded to ensure a good mechanical bond.

FloorClad is floor coating, not a filler or patching material. As such, it will mirror the substrate to which it is applied. For cracks less than 3 wide, we recommend MonoBuild CS6 compound. For patching and filling larger cracks and voids, use polymer modified cementious/epoxy screeds

Note: Crack repair materials are typically applied between the bond and finish coats of the FloorClad epoxy base system.

Provided the proper mix ratios are followed, FloorClad It materials may be mixed in smaller quantities. The proper mix ratios should be followed. Once mixed, FloorClad must be used within the allotted pot life of the activated product.

Peeling epoxy should not be a problem for years to come as long as the proper steps are taken to prep the floor. If care is not taken to clean and remove any stains or you have areas where moisture manages to come through the concrete from underneath, peeling is possible

The time taken to install epoxy floor finish will vary from one project to the next. For surface prep work, some floors may require patching or extra effort to clean tough stains or old epoxy. Under standard condition, for a team of 7-8 applicators it takes about 8-10 days to complete an application of 3mm epoxy floor of 2000sqm which varies depending upon the system selected. For working site the installation time varies significantly.

After approximately 24 hours of curing time, light load movement is possible

No, as we treat the joints and cracks by opening it and then by filling with the appropriate joint material, flexible or semi-rigid, after installation of the coating.


Surface Preparation

Clean and rinse the area free of dust, dirt and debris with fresh water. While rinsing the area, perform the "water test". Gently rinse the entire area with water and look for evidence of water beading, filming, or otherwise not absorbing into the cement. You should see the cement darken evenly as the water absorbs into it. If any areas (isolated or widespread) appear to be repelling or otherwise impeding the absorption of water further cleaning (see next step) is necessary prior to application.

A quality degreasing agent such as FloorClad will usually lift oils and grease from the floor well enough to allow coating to begin. To determine if your floor has trouble spots, perform the water test. Spray the floor with water and watch for areas in which the water does not soak into the substrate, but beads on the surface. These areas will need to be degreased until the water is readily absorbed by the substrate.

Yes. When applying FloorClad to a cement surface, an acid wash is necessary to neutralize the alkalinity of the surface and lower pH levels for acceptance of the epoxy. We specifically recommend a wash using a mixture of 10% muriatic acid mixed with water and applied to the surface using a bucket and push broom. Always rinse thoroughly with fresh water and never let the acid solution "dry" on the surface which can cause powdering. The acid wash should be performed within 48 hours, preferably immediately before, coating.

No. Unlike the acid wash which is described above, using a stronger solution for cleaning or etching is not recommended because it can damage your cement causing the surface to become porous or brittle. All cleaning should be done using a degreaser or quality detergent mixed with water and agitated with a stiff-bristle broom or brush.

FloorClad water-based epoxy systems are moisture insensitive and in addition when Resin and Hardender are mixed with Aggregates, the co-plastimer bonding additive, the mixed epoxy will be drawn into the pores of the dampened concrete or wood floor as it cures, creating a PERMANENT bond.

Virtually the same prep as a floor that has been used. Always wash the surface clean of dust and debris and carefully check for signs of beading using the water test — builders sometimes spill.

Yes, the substrate profile plays an important role during coating. Bonding of substrate with epoxy coating depends upon the surface profile. A profile of CSP 2 or 3 is recommended (profile should appear similar to 60-80 grit sandpaper). Uneven profile increases the consumption of epoxy floor coating.


Maintenance

It is important to avoid using regular household soaps. When mixed with water, they can create a slippery surface and leave a filmy residue. It is recommended to use a soft, non-abrasive bristled scrub brush and a non-abrasive cleaning compound. Once the epoxy coating is clear of any dirt or stains, be sure and rinse off the debris and any cleaning compound that was used. It is safe to use a pressure washer on the epoxy finish.

Yes, Coating with low to medium amount of anti-skid is traditionally cleaned with a mop with water, or water/vinegar mixture. If you add more aggressive anti-skid, a broom will need to be used in place of the mop, everything else stays the same.