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Monarch Industrial Products (I) Pvt Ltd

(An ISO 9001 : 2015, ISO 14001 : 2015 & OHSAS 18001 : 2007 Certified Company)
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Hardness Tables
1 The Metals defines hardness as "Resistance of metal to plastic deformation,
2 This scale is a chart of relative hardness of the various minerals 1 - softest to 10 - hardest
Mohs Hardness Scale
S.NO Original Scale Hardnes Number Modified Scale
1 Talc 1 Talc
2 Gypsum 2 Gypsum
3 Calcite 3 Calcite
4 Fluorite 4 Fluorite
5 Apatite 5 Apatite
6 Orthoclase 6 Orthoclase
7 Quartz 7 Vitreous Silica
8 Topaz 8 Quartz or Stellite
9 Corundum 9 Topaz
10 Diamond 10 Garnet
11 ............... 11 Fused Zirconia
12 ............... 12 Fused Alumina
13 ............... 13 Silicon Carbide
14 ............... 14 Boron Carbide
15 ............... 15 Diamond
S.No Substance Number S.No Substance Number
1 Agate 6-7 49 Indium 1.2
2 Alabaster 1.7 50 Iridium 6-6.5
3 Alum 2-2.5 51 Iridosmium 7
4 Aluminum 2-2.9 52 Iron 4-5
5 Alundum 9+ 53 Kaolinite 2.0-2.5
6 Amber 2-2.5 54 Lead 1.5
7 Andalusite 7.5 55 Lithium 0.6
8 Anthracite 2.2 56 Loess (0°) 0.3
9 Antimony 3.0-3.3 57 Magnesium 2
10 Apatite 5 58 Magnetite 6
11 Aragonite 3.5 59 Manganese 5
12 Arsenic 3.5 60 Marble 3-4
13 Asbestos 5 61 Meerschaum 2-3
14 Asphalt 1-2 62 Mica 2.8
15 Augite 6 63 Opal 4-6
16 Barite 3.3 64 Orthoclase 6
17 Bell-metal 4 65 Osmium 7
18 Beryl 7.8 66 Palladium 4.8
19 Bismuth 2.5 67 Phosphorus 0.5
20 Boric Acid 3 68 Phosphorbronze 4
21 Boron 9.5 69 Platinum 4.3
22 Brass 3-4 70 Plat-iridium 6.5
23 Cadmium 2 71 Potassium 0.5
24 Calamine 5 72 Pumice 6
25 Calcite 3 73 Pyrite 6.3
26 Calcium 1.5 74 Quartz 7
27 Carbon 10 75 Rock Salt (halite) 2
28 Carborundum 9-10 76 Ross' Metal 2.5-3.0
29 Cesium 0.2 77 Rubidium 0.3
30 Chromium 9 78 Ruthenium 6.5
31 Copper 2.5-3 79 Selenium 2
32 Corundum 9 80 Serpentine 3-4
33 Diamond 10 81 Silicon 7
34 Diatomaceous Earth 1-1.5 82 Silver 2.5-4
35 Dolomite 3.5-4 83 Silver Chloride 1.3
36 Emery 7-9 84 Sodium 0.4
37 Feldspar 6 85 Steel 5-8.5
38 Flint 7 86 Stibnite 2
39 Fluorite 4 87 Strontium 1.8
40 Galena 2.5 88 Sulfur 1.5-2.5
41 Gallium 1.5 89 Talc 1
42 Garnet 6.5-7 90 Tellurium 2.3
43 Glass 4.5-6.5 91 Tin 1.5-1.8
44 Gold 2.5-3 92 Topaz 8
45 Graphite 0.5-1 93 Tourmaline 7.3
46 Gypsum 1.6-2 94 Wax (0°) 0.2
47 Hematite 6 95 Wood's Metal 3
48 Hornblende 5.5 96 Zinc 2.5

Density

The mass per unit volume of a substance under specified conditions of pressure and temperature (Mass/volume ( gm/ cm3 )

Densities of Pure Metals
S.NO Element Symbol Density
g/cm3
1 Actinium Ac 10
2 Aluminum Al 2.7
3 Antimony Sb 6.68
4 Barium Ba 3.62
5 Beryllium Be 1.85
6 Bismuth Bi 9.79
7 Cadmium Cd 8.69
8 Calcium Ca 1.54
9 Cerium Ce 6.77
10 Cesium Cs 1.93
11 Chromium Cr 7.15
12 Cobalt Co 8.86
13 Copper Cu 8.96
14 Dysprosium Dy 8.55
15 Erbium Er 9.07
16 Europium Eu 5.24
17 Gadolinium Gd 7.9
18 Gallium Ga 5.91
19 Gold Au 19.3
20 Hafnium Hf 13.3
21 Holmium Ho 8.8
22 Indium In 7.31
23 Iridium Ir 22.5
24 Iron Fe 7.87
25 Lanthanum La 6.15
26 Lead Pb 11.3
27 Lithium Li 0.53
28 Lutetium Lu 9.84
29 Magnesium Mg 1.74
30 Manganese Mn 7.3
31 Mercury Hg 13.53
32 Molybdenum Mo 10.2
33 Neodymium Nd 7.01
34 Neptunium Np 20.2
35 Nickel Ni 8.9
36 Niobium Nb 8.57
37 Osmium Os 22.59
38 Palladium Pd 12
39 Platinum Pt 21.5
40 Plutonium Pu 19.7
41 Polonium Po 9.2
42 Potassium K 0.89
43 Praseodymium Pr 6.77
44 Promethium Pm 7.26
45 Protactinium Pa 15.4
46 Radium Ra 5
47 Rhenium Re 20.8
48 Rhodium Rh 12.4
49 Rubidium Rb 1.53
50 Ruthenium Ru 12.1
51 Samarium Sm 7.52
52 Scandium Sc 2.99
53 Silver Ag 10.5
54 Sodium Na 0.97
55 Strontium Sr 2.64
56 Tantalum Ta 16.4
57 Technetium Tc 11
58 Terbium Tb 8.23
59 Thallium Tl 11.8
60 Thorium Th 11.7
61 Thulium Tm 9.32
62 Tin Sn 7.26
63 Titanium Ti 4.51
64 Tungsten W 19.3
65 Uranium U 19.1
66 Vanadium V 6
67 Ytterbium Yb 6.9
68 Yttrium Y 4.47
69 Zinc Zn 7.14
70 Zirconium Zr 6.52
Tables

Dielectric Constant

The dielectric constant is the ratio of the permittivity of a substance to the permittivity of free space.

Dielectric Constant 
S.No Material Min. Max.
1 Air 1 1
2 Amber 2.6 2.7
3 Asbestos fiber 3.1 4.8
4 Bakelite 5 22
5 Barium Titanate 100 1250
6 Beeswax 2.4 2.8
7 Cambric 4 4
8 Carbon Tetrachloride 2.17 2.17
9 Celluloid 4 4
10 Cellulose Acetate 2.9 4.5
11 Durite 4.7 5.1
12 Ebonite 2.7 2.7
13 Epoxy Resin 3.4 3.7
14 Ethyl Alcohol 6.5 25
15 Fiber 5 5
16 Formica 3.6 6
17 Glass 3.8 14.5
18 Glass Pyrex 4.6 5
19 Gutta Percha 2.4 2.6
20 Isolantite 6.1 6.1
21 Kevlar 3.5 4.5
22 Lucite 2.5 2.5
23 Mica 4 9
24 Micarta 3.2 5.5
25 Mycalex 7.3 9.3
26 Neoprene 4 6.7
27 Nylon 3.4 22.4
28 Paper 1.5 3
29 Paraffin 2 3
30 Plexiglass 2.6 3.5
31 Polycarbonate 2.9 3.2
32 Polyethylene 2.5 2.5
33 Polyimide 3.4 3.5
34 Polystyrene 2.4 3
35 Porcelain 5 6.5
36 Quartz 5 5
37 Rubber 2 4
38 Ruby Mica 5.4 5.4
39 Selenium 6 6
40 Shellac 2.9 3.9
41 Silicone 3.2 4.7
42 Slate 7 7
43 Soil dry 2.4 2.9
44 Steatite 5.2 6.3
45 Styrofoam 1.03 1.03
46 Teflon 2.1 2.1
47 Titanium Dioxide 100 100
48 Vaseline 2.16 2.16
49 Vinylite 2.7 7.5
50 Water distilled 34 78
51 Waxes, Mineral 2.2 2.3
52 Wood dry 1.4 2.9

Dielectric Strength

The voltage at which the insulating qualities of a material break down (kv / mm)

Dielectric Strength (kv /mm)
1 Acetal copolymer resin  15
2 Acetal homopolymer resin  15
3 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene  16.7
4 Alkali-silicate glass  200
5 Alumina  13.4
6 Aluminum silicate 5.9
7 Amide polymer nylon 11(dry)  16.7
8 Amide polymer nylon 6/6, dry 23.6
9 Amorphous Stabar K2000  (ICI film) 404-422 
10 Aramid paper, calendered  28.7
11 Aramid paper, uncalendered   12.2
12 Aramid with Mica  39.4
13 Baking type epoxy varnish 90.6
14 Barium titanate, glass bonded  >30 
15 Basic epoxy resin:   bisphenol-A/epichlorohydrin 19.7
16 Berillia  13.8
17 Boron nitride 37
18 Butyl rubber  23.6
19 Cellulose acetate film 157
20 Cellulose triacetate film 157
21 Clear two-part heat curing eletrical  grade silicone embedding resin 21.7
22 Cordierite, 7.9
23 Cycloaliphatic epoxy: alicyclic diepoxy carboxylate 19.7
24 Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer 19.6
25 Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer film  197
26 Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer  15.7
27 Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene film  197
28 Fluorinated ethylene-propylene  copolymer film 197
29 Fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer  19.7
30 Fluorophlogopite, synthetic  118
31 Forsterite 9.8
32 Fused Silca  470-670
33 Glass-bonded mica  14.0-15.0
34 Glass-filled alkyd/polyester (Type MAI-60 per MIL-M-14G)  14.8
35 Glass-filled allyl (Type GDI-30 per MIL-M-14G) 15.4
36 Glass-filled epoxy, electrical grade 15.4
37 Glass-filled melamine  (Type MMI-30 per MIL-M-14G) 13.4
38 Glass-filled phenolic  (Type GPI-100 per MIL-M-14G) 15
39 High-voltage rubber insulating tape 28
40 Hostaphan (Hoechst AG)   338-447
41 Kapton H (Du Pont)   389-430
42 Low-density polyethylene film  (40 µm thick) 300
43 Modified polyphenylene oxide  21.7
44 Muscovite, ruby, natural 118
45 Neoprene  15.7-27.6 
46 Parylene N/D (poly-p-xylylene/polydichloro-p-xylylene) 25 µmfilm  275
47 Perfluoroalkoxy film  157-197 
48 Perfluoroalkoxy polymer 21.6
49 Phlogopite, amber, natural  118
50 Polyamide-imide copolymer  22.8
51 Polybutylene terephthalate  15.7
52 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene  19.7
53 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene film  118-153.5 
54 Polyetherimide  18.9
55 Polyetherimide film (26 µm)   486
56 Polyetherketone  18.9
57 Polyethersulfone  15.7
58 Polyethylene  18.9
59 Polyethylene, high-density 19.7
60 Polyethylene, low-density  21.7
62 Polymethyl methacrylate  19.7
63 Polypropylene  23.6
69 Polypropylene/polyethylene copolymer 23.6
70 Poly-p-xylylene film  410-590
71 Polystyrene 19.7
72 Polystyrene-butadiene copolymer  15.7
73 Polysulfone  16.7
74 Polytetrafluoroethylene  19.7
75 Polytetrafluoroethylene film   87-173
76 Polyurethane coating Immersion conditions  47.2
77 Polyurethane coating Standard conditions  78.7
78 Polyvinyl chloride Flexible  11.8-15.7 
79 Polyvinyl chloride Rigid  13.8-19.7 
80 Polyvinylidene fluoride  10.2
81 Porcelain 35-60
82 Potassium bromide, 80
83 Red insulating enamel (MIL-E-22118) 47.2
84 Rigid high-bond high-flash freon-resistant 68.9
85 Room-temperature vulcanized silicone rubber 9.2-10.9 
86 Rubber, natural  100-215 
87 Semiflexible high-bond thixotropic 78.7
88 Silicone rubber   26-36
89 Sodium chloride,  150
90 Solvable, for hermetic electric motors  181.1
91 Solventless, semiflexible, one-part  82.7
92 Solventless, semirigid, chemical  resistant, low dielectric constant 106.3
93 Stabar S100 (ICI film)  353-452
94 Standard window glass  9.8-13.8
95 Steatite 9.1-15.4 
96 Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer  16.7
97 Thermosetting Molding Compounds 15.7
98 Titanates   20-120 
99 Two-component, polyol-cured  25.4
100 Two-part solventless, 24
101 Ultem (GE Plastic and Roem AG)   437-565
102 Ureas (from carbamideto tetraphenylurea)  11.8-15.7
103 Zirconia 11.4